The Book of Enoch-Content And Heretical Influences On Modernity; Occult And Christian/Religious

History & Overview

Issues and Heretical Influences

Kim Olsen says; “The Book of Enoch is the basis for ‘Enochian magic.’  (I will cover this a bit later in historical detail)                                                                                                                        Expanded, extra-Biblical information.                                      “The Book of Enoch is used by Tom Horn (and others), as a means to promote his view on the Nephilim.”
The Apocrypha Rejected By Majority Of Church The Reformers, the Palestinian Jews or Jewish people in Israel, the Samaritans, the leading fathers of the Greek Church, principle lights among the Early Church Fathers; all rejected the idea of the inspiration of the Apocrypha. 

New Agers like the late Elizabeth Claire Prophet support the Book of Enoch
(I will cover this in detail later as well)
Exaggerations Extraordinaire? – Enochian Fallacies The Book of Enoch teaches that 450 tall feet giants exist in the world via relations of angels plus women. (Enoch 7: 3) A simple example of an Enochic fallacy that very few would sincerely assert as an indisputable, God-inspired fact is the descriptions of Noah as a newborn baby in which “his form and appearance are not like the form of human beings…and his eyes are like the rays of the sun…[which] made the whole house bright. And he stood up from the hands of the midwife and he opened his mouth and praised the Lord of eternity” (1 Enoch 106:10-11,18;107:3). (Other contradictions and fallacies) 

Extra-Biblical Angel Names And Heretical Designations

In Chapter 40:9-10 of the Book of Enoch, it falsely describes Phanuel at work fighting evil in his role offering hope to people who repent of their sins and inherit eternal life…9…”seen and whose words I have heard and written down?’ And he said to me: ‘This first is Michael, the merciful and long-suffering: and the second, who is set over all the diseases and all the wounds of the children of men, is Raphael: and the third, who is set over all the powers, is Gabriel: and the fourth, who is set over the repentance unto hope of those who inherit eternal life, is  named Phanuel.’ 10 And these are the four angels of the Lord of Spirits and the four voices I heard in those….”
Raphael:-set over all the diseases; Phanuel:-set over the repentance                                      “(Enoch 40:7). The non-canonical Jewish and Christian manuscripts—called the Sibylline Oracles—mention Phanuel among five angels who know all the evils that humans have ever committed. The Christian apocryphal book—The Shepherd of Hermas—names Phanuel as the archangel of penance.                                                                                                                                                                   Although Phanuel is not mentioned by name in the Bible, Christians traditionally consider Phanuel to be the angel who, in a vision of the end of the world, sounds a trumpet and leads other angels calling out in Revelation 11:15, saying: “The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Messiah, and he will reign forever and ever.’”  
Other Religious Roles                                                                                                              “Phanuel is considered to be the leader of the Ophanim group of angels—the angels who guard God’s throne in heaven. Since Phanuel is also traditionally the archangel of exorcisms, ancient Hebrews made amulets of Phanuel to use when invoking him against evil spirits. Christian tradition says that Phanuel will battle the Antichrist (Belial, the demon of lies) during the Battle of Armageddon and win victory through Jesus Christ’s power. Ethiopian Christians celebrate Phanuel by dedicating an annual holy day to him. Some members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the Mormon church), believe that the archangel Phanuel once lived on Earth as the prophet Joseph Smith, who founded Mormonism.”

Promotes Fascination With Angels – Creating Heresies – Occult Activity 
“Interest in angels has increased dramatically in recent years. People seek angel healings, practice divination with angel cards and hungrily read anything they can find on the internet that talks about angels. There are dozens of blogs and articles dedicated to helping people grow their own angel wings, communicate with angels or recognize angels when they appear on Earth. Regardless of how correct or incorrect people’s perceptions of angels are, the fact remains that angels have become the latest craze, and Enoch has a great deal to say about angels.  Enoch contains two lists of archangels as well as what each angel’s job is in heaven. Enoch also names some of the angels that he claims fell from heaven. As a general rule, people like lists. They also like to feel like they are privy to secret drama, and Enoch’s list of names lets some people feel that they were able to have a window into a heavenly squabble.
“those Enochic stories (are moved) into the realm of “…empty deceit, according to human tradition, according to the elemental spirits of the universe, and not according to Christ” (Colossians 2:8, NRSV). The unhealthy fascination with and exaltation of angels throughout the book also stands in contrast to the message ofColossians 2:18-19Revelation 19:10, etc.”

Speculations Spawned On Heaven And The After Life The stories of Enoch’s ascent into heaven (1 Enoch 71:1,5) contradicts Jesus Christ’s words in John 3:13, and the tales of an actively conscious afterlife of Enoch and others prior to the resurrection (e.g., 1 Enoch 70:3-4; 65:2-5; 22:7-13, etc.) are in conflict with Ecclesiastes  9:5,10, Job 14:14Hebrews 11:13,39-40, 1 Thessalonians 4:14-16, etc.
                                                                                                                                                                  “Most people who believe in an afterlife have wondered what that afterlife will look like when they finally die and visit it. Enoch has one of the most detailed descriptions of heaven that has currently been discovered. As such, people want to read about what is on the other side. In Enoch, they find tales of the fiery Tree of Life, houses that hold snow and morning dew and other incredible images. The vision Enoch crafts is beautiful enough to fit with what many people imagine heaven to be like but otherworldly enough to convince people that his descriptions may not simply be a man’s imaginings but an actual glimpse of heaven.” (Authors tho’t-not mine!)

Uniqueness – OR – Forbidden Esoteric Knowledge!

If Enoch were seen as simply another book about a prophet trying to get people to repent, it is unlikely that the text would have gained as much attention and interest as it has so far. Enoch, however, is very different from other Hebrew writings. Beyond the elaborate descriptions of heaven and God, Enoch contains stories that are not found in other writings and expands upon those that are found elsewhere. The tale of the fallen angels, for example, is unusual in ancient writings. Similarly, the tale of the Nephilim is expanded upon. 

The Nephilim are mentioned very briefly in the creation story, but there is only a passing reference to these giants. Enoch, however, expands upon the tale of who and what these giants were and why God felt they needed to be destroyed. 

Enoch also has an interesting section that is reminiscent of the ancient Greek stories of Prometheus or Haida stories of the Raven. In this portion of Enoch, it is said that humans were taught many things by the fallen angels who had sired the Nephilim just as the ancient Greeks and Haida believed that humans were taught by the tricksters of their own pantheons. Among the things that fallen angels, especially Azazel, supposedly taught mankind were metalworking, knowledge of the constellations and how to track the course of the moon. (Repeating-This will be covered in much detail – these comments here, again, being the authors.)

AGE CREATED CURIOSITY Enoch is an old book. This alone has gotten it quite a bit of attention. As a general rule, the older a text is, the more people are curious about what is written inside it. Enoch is no exception to this. Its age and the fact that it was excluded from canon make it a source of fascination to many people.

Enoch is the perfect mix of old, unusual and trendy that has led everyone to be curious about this ancient text. Given that a feedback loop has formed, it is unlikely that public interest in this ancient book is going to wane anytime soon. Until then, Enoch will continue to be both a source of fascination and a cause of great frustration to many when people realize exactly how much of the book is, unfortunately, lost to time.

Book Of The Secrets Of Enoch – Esoteric Knowledge
Book Of The Secrets Of Enoch – Esoteric Knowledge
These recount how Enoch was taken up to Heaven and was appointed guardian of all the celestial treasures, chief of the archangels, and the immediate attendant on the Throne of GodHe was subsequently taught all secrets and mysteries and, with all the angels at his back, fulfils of his own accord whatever comes out of the mouth of God, executing His decrees. Much esoteric literature like the 3 Enoch identifies Enoch as the Metatron, the angel which communicates God’s word. In consequence, Enoch was seen, by this literature, and the Rabbinic kabbalah of Jewish mysticism, as having been the one which communicated God’s revelation to Moses, in particular, the dictator of the Book of Jubilees.
In Jewish apocrypha and early kabbalah, “Metatron” is the name that Enoch received after his transformation into an angel       The identification of Metatron with the gnostic 3 Enoch, where the name first appears, is not explicitly made in the Talmud although it does refer to a Prince of the World who was young but now is old. However, some of the earliest kabbalists assumed the connection.
Merkabah and later mystical writings  
Rabbi Ishmael, tells how Metatron guided him through Heaven and explained its wonders. 3 Enoch presents Metatron in two ways: as a primordial angel (9:2–13:2) and as the transformation of Enoch after he was assumed into Heaven.[24][25]

Metatron – Human To Angelic – Occult Beliefs                                                              (Occult) – Metatron is a powerful angel who teaches people how to use their spiritual power for good while he records their choices in the universe’s great archive (known either as God’s book of life or the Akashic record). 
Some believers say that Metatron is one of only two angels (the other is Archangel Sandalphon) who was first a human being. It is believed he was the prophet Enoch from the Torah and the Bible before ascending to heaven and becoming an angel. Metatron’s experience living on Earth as a person gives him a special ability to relate to people who want to connect with him. Here are some signs of Metatron’s presence:Signs of the Angel Metatron’s Presence – (Occult)
(Detailed information on Metatron / Enoch)

Book Of Enoch In The Cults   

In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints theologyAmong the Latter Day Saint movement and particularly in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Enoch is viewed as having founded an exceptionally righteous city, named Zion, in the midst of an otherwise wicked world. This view is encountered in the standard works, the Pearl of Great Price and the Doctrine and Covenants, which states that not only Enoch, but the entire peoples of the city of Zion, were taken off this earth without death, because of their piety. 

Pseudepigrapha/Apocrypha – False Authors/Writings
The book of Enoch isn’t sacred. That is to say, it isn’t a part of inspired Scripture. Rather, it is part of a group of books known as “pseudepigrapha,” which means “false authorship of writings.” (using pseudo names – apocrypha=false writings)

According to Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary, the Pseudepigrapha are “a collection of Jewish books containing various forms of literature, using names of famous people in Israel’s history for the titles of the books. The real authors are unknown. Such names as Ezra, Baruch, Enoch, Solomon, Moses, and Adam are used to add authority to the writing” (1986, article “Pseudepigrapha”). In addition to using a pseudonym, the first chapter of the book of Enoch also makes use of a famous statement made by the real Enoch who lived millennia before the oldest known copies of the book of Enoch came into existence.

A similar (albeit not exact) quotation of Enoch exists in the New Testament book of Jude in verses 14-15. We have no doubt that the real Enoch of Genesis 5 spoke these words and that they had been passed on by tradition from his time. However, the commonality of Jude 14-15 with 1 Enoch 1:9 does not make the rest of the pseudepigraphical book of Enoch “God-inspired” any more than Paul’s brief quotations of Aratus (Acts 17:28) and Epimenides (Titus 1:12) would sanctify the entirety of those authors’ words.
Apocrypha carries a touch of value judgment, while pseudepigrapha is a neutral term of Bible scholarship. 
Biblical scholarship defines as apocryphal books which have uncertain provenance or authorship and finally church authorities have excluded them from the canonized collection of sacred books. As opposed to this, the term pseudepigrapha (etymologically meaning “with false superscription”) embraces those texts that were in early Christian times “attributed to ideal figures in Israel’s past; that customarily claim to contain God’s word or message; that frequently build upon ideas and narratives present in the Old Testament; and that preserve, albeit in an edited form, Jewish traditions that date from the period between 200 B.C. and A.D. 200,” James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, vol. 1: Apocalyptic Literature and Testaments (New York: Doubleday, 1983), xxiv-vi. All in all, there is no great difference between the two terms, except that the word apocrypha carries a touch of value judgment, while pseudepigrapha is a neutral term of Bible scholarship. 

Contradictions and Other Spurious Stuff   

Section I    10:20 God telling angels (Michael) to cleanse the earth from sin…not Jesus? It is “..the blood of Jesus Christ His Son” that “cleanses us from every sin.” (1Jn1:7)                              10:21  With this cleansing the angels effect…men will be “righteous”. The Bible says that righteousness comes from God through Christ (2Cor5:21) and it is the “righteousness of God” (Rom3:22); not angels. Angels are “ministers”. (Heb1:7,14)

Section III This section seems to plant the seeds for astrology. There is a lot of mention of “portals” where the sun and moon rise and set throughout the seasons. As I read, I found it quite easy to visualize Stonehenge and other such structures that exist around the world; how these “portals” could easily have been the ‘openings’ between those stone pillars. I don’t know if there is any basis to this, but it was easy to see a potential parallel there.

72:5 Sun riding chariot…how pagan is that?! Josiah, when cleansing the land of idolatry “burned the chariots of the sun with fire” (2Ki23;11)

72:37 Proclaims the sun and moon to be equal in size. Scripture would not proclaim such a scientific error.

80:1 All the things about the universe, planets (Enoch is even supposedly whisked off to see the very ‘edge’ of the universe); and all this is being taught to him by the angel Uriel. Seems somehow reminiscent of Mormon (the name of a demon) teaching: that Adam and Eve traversed to the moon and back.

82:13 Angels have names as “leaders” of the sun/moon/stars. The angels supposedly are the originators of all the stars, are responsible for them in their orbits and existence; and are the basis for regular festivities (82:9) Sounds a lot like the beginings of astrology and the worship of the “host of the heavens” (De4:19; 2Ki17:16, 21:3,5, etc)

100:10 Claims that God “inquires of the angels” as to one’s deeds.

106:1 Noah born a super-natural being...106:2 “eyes glowed with sun-like brilliance from birth…speaking from the womb..Just the same way pagan demonic entities are supposedly ‘possessed’, others know it because their eyes glow, and they speak with a different kind of voice.

106:6 Claims Noah was not conceived from human seed…but from angels. Directly contradicting Scripture which proclaims, “These are the generations of Noah. Noah was a just man, perfect in his generation. Noah walked with God.” (Gen6:9)

106:8 Necromancy: communicating with the departed. Methuselah contacts Enoch after his translation on behalf of Lamech.

Note: Throughout the entire book, the emphasis is on ‘angels’ and ‘spirits’. Angels do things, give commands, and are listed and named. The kind of recognition given to great men, by listing and recording names. Not very much at all about God. It’s as if God is somehow ‘incidental’…but the main activity is being done by angels. I suspect, if a person were to study the book more in-depth (which I will not do), one would find the seeds of how most pagans, catholics, and other liturgically-based beliefs view angels. Setting them up to be worshiped. The book has the feel of a document intended to ‘teach’ people aboutthings not really intended for man at this time: “..worship of angels, intruding into those things which he has not seen..” (Col2:18)

“Enoch couldn’t have written it: It contains information that was only known, or in existence, -AFTER- the flood. Enoch was raptured 700 years before the flood. And furthermore, with all these doctrines of demons that it contains, such a man who “walked with God” (Gen5:22,24) would have had no part with demons in the manner suggested in this book.”

Summary Warnings 

 “In summary, when it comes to falsely-attributed writings like the pseudepigraphic book of Enoch, do not “be easily shaken…by any kind of spirit or message or letter allegedly from us” (2 Thessalonians 2:2, NET; compare Galatians 1:8). Also, “Do not be carried about with various and strange doctrines. For it is good that the heart be established by grace, not with foods which have not profited those who have been occupied with them” (Hebrews 13:9).


Enochian Influences On Modernity; Occult And Christian/Religious 

ENOCH, THE MYSTERIOUS PROPHET “A perplexing text, the Apocalypse of Enoch, has become a treasure of modern occultists. For example, it was translated into Hungarian by the esoteric philosopher, Béla Hamvas, and the publication appeared during the last days of the war in 1945 (fig. 1: The title page of the Hungarian edition).
THE HERO OF THE PSEUDEPIGRAPHA  The scarce remarks of the Old and New Testaments are abundantly completed by apocryphal and pseudepigraphical literature surviving from both the Jewish and Christian traditions.3 This textual lore is intriguing as well as complicated. An interesting fact is that although the core text, the so-called Apocalypse of Enoch, was not known to Europeans until the eighteenth century, hearsay about this material had fascinated European humanists since the time of the Renaissance. 

Books Breakdown 1 Enoch also called the “Book of the Watchers” comprises a complex system of angelology. The second part presents apocalyptic visions about the Last Judgment. The third part (chapters 72-82) is an astrological treatise and undoubtedly influenced the development of medieval astrology, which I shall touch on below. The fourth part is a vision about the future of Israel that at the same time relates the history of mankind from Adam up to the Deluge. The fifth part is the testament of Enoch. 2 Enoch is the so-called Slavonic Enoch, which survived in an Orthodox manuscript and was discovered in the 19th century. Its dating and genealogy are uncertain.5 3 Enoch is a Hebrew text, a product of the Merkabah mysticism that flourished between the 5th and 10th centuries A.D. The text has survived in several medieval manuscripts, but was only re-discovered in the 19th century. Curiously, one of its chapters was printed in Cracow in 1579, but since it was a Hebrew publication European humanists did not take notice of it.6

ENOCH THE MEDIEVAL HERMETIC KING  None of the texts described above were known in the Middle Ages, at least not to the theologians of Western Christianity. Enoch was nevertheless often remembered by the Church Fathers as well as later divines. Enoch definitely exercised a strong influence on medieval Christian iconography.  
 From the thirteenth century onwards strange, magical texts started proliferating under the supposed authorship of Enoch.Vincent of Beauvais in his Speculum naturale refers to the “Book of Enoch.” The patriarch also appeared in many works on astrology and alchemy, which characteristically identified Enoch with Hermes Trismegistus, the mythical sage of hermetism.8 This is the claim in the so-called “Treatise on Fifteen Stars,” which survives in many medieval manuscripts, and it is repeated in Robert of Chester’s Liber de compositione alchemiae and in the 13th-century manuscript “Hermes Mercurius Triplex on the Six Principles of Things,” and so on.9 Enoch’s lore on angels was also echoed in the spurious medieval manuscript literature on ceremonial magic, including the “Book of Venus,” the Liber Juratus, the Liber lunae and the various versions of the “Book of Toz.”10 It also appears that Roger Bacon, the medieval mystical scientist, regarded Enoch highly and mentioned him in his Secretum secretorum as someone equal to Hermes.11            

THE SEARCH FOR ENOCH IN THE RENAISSANCE The medieval reception of Enoch bordered on heresy, at least from the viewpoint of some church authorities. Upon the emergence of neoplatonic hermeticism in the fifteenth century, the heterodox treatment of the patriarch gained completely new and enlarged dimensions. Next to Hermes Trismegistus it was Enoch who provided the magically minded humanists with examples of deification, or exaltatio, a technique of the “ascension on high” so greatly desired by them.12 In their writings Hermes Trismegistus was interpreted as the reincarnation of Enoch – thus reinforcing their ideological program that aimed at some syncretism, an amalgamation of the Judeo-Christian tradition and Classical mythology.13   
                                                                 A most notable example is that of Giovanni Mercurio da Correggio. This rather mysterious wandering humanist turned up in Lyon in 1501, and his impressive “miracles” were witnessed (although condescendingly) by one of the great authorities of Renaissance magic, Abbott Johannes Trithemius. Only a few pieces of writing remain from the pen of Mercurio,14 but there are several eyewitness reports of his activities. According to these he acted as the reincarnation of the famous Classical magician, Apollonius of Tyana, following Hermes Trismegistus, he called himself the “Mercurius secundus,”                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In 1505 Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples, the hermetically-minded French humanist, published a curious work in Paris by another Italian hermetist, the deceased Lodovico Lazzarelli’s Crater hermetis. To this he added the two most famous tracts of the Corpus hermeticum, the Greek original, Pimander, and the Latin Asclepius. 17 Lazzarelli (1450-1500) belonged to the neoplatonist-humanist circle of Ficino and Pontano, and after a while he became an ardent follower of their hermetic teachings. As he himself claimed, his “hermetic turn” was due to Giovanni Mercurio, who appeared in Rome in 1484 and roamed the city with a crown of thorns on his head and preached a new, mystical Christian renovation. Lazzarelli recorded his meeting with Mercurio and there he assumed for himself the name “Lodovicus Enoch Lazarellus Septempedanus.” In this treatise he summarized the effect of his experience with Mercurio as follows: “When I with astonished eyes had witnessed the sacred mystery of this unprecedented event, I left the Parnassian hills and everything else, and immediately followed him to Mount Zion – the first of his pupils.”18 From this text it appears that Lazzarelli considered Giovanni Mercurio the reincarnation of Hermes Trismegistus and himself the reincarnation of Enoch.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Lazzarelli’s contemporary, the famous Pico della Mirandola, in his De hominis dignitate oratio, explained the divine characteristics of humankind with the examples of Adam, Enoch, and Elijah: “the esoteric theology of the Hebrews at times transforms the holy Enoch into that angel of divinity which is sometimes called malakh-ha-shekhinah and at other times transforms other personages into divinities of other names.”19                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Cornelius Agrippa, a typical Renaissance magus, and Paracelsus, the inventor of iatrochemical medicine, both mentioned and hailed Enoch’s translatio. As Agrippa states in De occulta philosophia::                                                                                                             These things are not granted to all, but to those whose imaginative and cogitative power is most strong and hath arrived to the end of speculation. … Now, for example, that the souls abound with so plentiful light of the celestial stars, and hence, a very great abundance of light redoundeth into their bodies; so Moses did shine; thus Socrates was transfigured; so Zoroastres being transfigured, his body was taken up. So Eliah and Enoch ascended to heaven in a certain fiery chariot, so Paul was rapt up into the third heaven” (3.43).20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Paracelsus was also most interested in Enoch’s translation and saw it as an archetypal situation of magical exaltatio. As Deborah Harkness has pointed out, Paracelsus drew on biblical sources to create a second Enoch, or Elias artista, who would return to the world and reveal occult aspects of the Book of Nature.21  Among Paracelsus’ works it was the Archidoxa which raised the questions of primordial knowledge for the first time:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    “As long as we have the power and knowledge, we possess the capacity of sustaining our life. For Adam attained to such an advanced period of life not from the nature or condition of his own properties, but simply from this reason, that he was so learned and wise a physician, who knew all things in Nature herself…”22                                                                                                                                                                                                          In the 1960s, Marie Boas also noted Paracelsus’ interest in revelative knowledge, describing the German doctor’s thought as something that “combined iconoclasm with appeal to ‘experience’, primarily mystic experience. He attacked reason because it was opposed to magic, and magic was to him the best key to experience.”23 For these reasons he despised the ancient authorities but found a perfect synthesis between science and occult illumination among biblical characters: Adam, the forefather, and his descendant, Enoch.                                                                                                                                                                                                  For Paracelsus as well as for other 16th-century occult thinkers, Adam’s knowledge was emblematized by his mystical language, which provided him with a direct means of communication with God and the angels. And it was Enoch who was the last man privileged to be able to learn the lingua adamica, the key to perfect knowledge so much sought by Renaissance philosophers who all aspired to be among the new elect of the pansophia. Many of them, with Paracelsus in the forefront, indeed became convinced that they had come into the possession of universal wisdom:                                                                                                                                                                                                                    …The magically and hermetically minded Renaissance humanists were ambitious to find a way to come into the possession of Adam’s language or the angelic language which would provide them not only with universal knowledge but, by reestablishing direct contact with the Creator, would also annul the consequences of the original sin and the fall.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              These enthusiasts pursued occult philosophy in order to gain God’s revelative knowledge. In the end several of them became convinced that they had indeed been granted omniscience. This is how Mercurio da Correggio, Lodovico Lazzarelli, and Paracelsus seem to have felt, but the two most perplexing cases were Guillaume Postel and John Dee.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

ENTHUSIASTS, PHILOLOGY, REVELATION                                                                  One of the enthusiastic humanists who passionately researched the legacy of Enoch was the French philologist and orientalist, at the same time a propagator of world peace, Guillaume Postel (1510-1581). The Renaissance scholar William Bouwsma characterized him as: “Postel is at once one of the most interesting and one of the most puzzling figures of the 16th century. His spectacular career and the wide range of his interests and activities have frequently attracted the attention of historians, and his name appears in the most various connections. He was the most learned Christian cabalist of his day, one of the earliest systematic Arabists in Western Europe, a pioneer in the comparative study of language, and a humanist of distinction.”25                                                                                                                                                                                                        Parallel – and in connection – with his interest in oriental studies Postel’s main concern was a general religious reformation of the world which would result in the unification of main world religions (Christianity, Judaism, and Islam). He hoped that on the basis of rational persuasion it would be possible to convince non-Christians of the superiority of the teachings of Christ. At the beginning he placed his trust in the Jesuits, so in 1544 he traveled to Rome and requested admission into the order from Ignatius of Loyola. It soon turned out that the lonely eccentric did not fit in the strict organisation, so he was dismissed. In any case, during his stay in Rome he met an Ethiopian priest who told him about the Book of Enoch, as it was known in Africa. This summary completely fascinated Postel, who immediately wrote a memorandum to the pope suggesting that the Zohar and the Book of Enoch should be included among the biblical canon based on revelation.26                                                                                                                                          His interest in Enoch must have lead Postel later to the problems of reincarnation, a phenomenon he believed he had experienced himself.27 In Venice in 1547 he met an elderly nun, Mater Zuana, who was doing charity work in a hospital run for poor people. She so strongly impressed Postel that the French humanist adopted her as his spiritual mother and recognized in her a mystical world-soul – mater mundi – calling her also the “New Eve.” Mater Zuana died in 1549 and Postel moved back to Paris, where two years later some strange things happened. During Christmas night, 1551, the humanist fainted and saw a vision in which Mater Zuana told him that she was moving into his body, thus turning Postel’s physical frame into the tabernacle of the holy reincarnation of the world’s female principle. With enochian terminology Postel called this his translatio and restitutio. 28                                                                                                                                      Postel felt great calm and happiness after his translation. Contemporaries little appreciated this because soon he was confined in a monastery functioning as an asylum, which he did not leave till his death. Interestingly, he continued writing throughout the rest of his life and left an enormous amount of manuscript material behind; some of his works were even printed during this period.                                                                                                                                                                                              It is a fact that the Frenchman considered himself the reincarnation of a “lesser Messiah,” “a new Elijah” or a “new Enoch,” a custodian of the female principle. He claimed that he was a reborn and restituted man, a herald of a new era of general renovatio. In this age the world would be restored to the perfection of the moment of creation and Satan would be defeated forever before the dawn of the apocalypse.                                                                                                                                                                                Although Postel knew about the Ethiopian Book of Enoch, he never saw the text. From the 16th through the 18th century this mysterious text vexed theologians, philologists, and enthusiasts. In the seventeenth century there was news of the discovery of 1Enoch, but in the end the text turned out to be an original Ethiopian mystical work rather than the long-sought Book of Enoch. It was only in 1773 that the real Apocalypse of Enoch was found and the text only became available to scholars in the 19th century. Postel’s example shows that although the original text was hidden, even the news about its existence could kindle the imagination of many enthusiasts. Among the researchers of Enoch in the Renaissance the English mathematician and magus, John Dee, got the farthest.29                                                                                                                                            Dee started as a mathematician but during his career became more and more immersed in occultism. Like many Renaissance intellectuals, he was desperately looking for universal knowledge, a clavis universalis, and this turned his attention to esoterism and magic. In 1581 he – like Postel earlier, whom he had actually met in Paris in 1550 – experienced something extraordinary. With the help of a medium, Edward Kelly, he managed to establish regular contact with the spirit world and engaged in conversations with angels. This seemed to him the solution of his long and frustrating search for omniscience after he was disappointed by mathematics and meditative talismanic magic. As he concluded: the easiest way of learning the universal language of Adam and Enoch was to directly ask the angels who had translated the patriarch.30 The “angelic conversations” took place by the help of the medium, a crystal ball and some magical equipment. It is apparent that the learned humanist and scientist finally ended up practicing a crude form of popular magic known as scrying.                                                                                                                                                                                                     The subjects of these angelic conversations were varied, but Dee’s main concern was to learn the lingua adamica, about which he took such thorough instruction that in the twentieth century a professional linguist, Donald Laycock, was able to reconstruct its vocabulary and grammar. Perhaps not surprisingly, his conclusion was that the language of the angels has a curious resemblance to English.31                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Dee meticulously wrote down everything the angels dictated through his medium; this huge amount of manuscript material is called the spiritual diaries of Dee, part of which was published by Meric Casaubon, the Späthumanist scholar in 1659.32 From the spiritual diaries one can deduce a whole complicated mythological system from revealing the war between the angels and demons, the corruption of mankind by the wicked spirit-prince, Coronzon, and the divine grace extended to Enoch. According to the narrative fiction of Dee, all these pieces of information were delivered by angels, and it is true that the details and motifs of this mythology are not known from any other source.                                                                                                                                                    As it turns out from the diaries, Dee firmly believed that with the help of the angels he became the first privileged man after Enoch to become acquainted with the prelapsarian ur-language, the lingua adamica. 33 As I have written about Dee:                                                                                                              “The Enochian mythology unfolded in his spiritual diaries through the communication of Archangel Gabriel. On Saturday, April 21, 1584, at a ‘scrying session’, Gabriel himself revealed the mythical story of the lingua adamica to the bemused doctor:” GABRIEL:“Man in his Creation, being made an Innocent, was also authorised and made partaker of the Power and Spirit of God: whereby he not only did know all things under his Creation and spoke of them properly, naming them as they were: but also was partaker of our [i.e. the angels’] presence and society, yea a speaker of the mysteries of God; yea, with God himself: so that in innocency the power of his partakers with God, and us his good Angels, was exalted and so became holy in the sight of God until that Coronzon (for so is the true name of that mighty Devil) envying his felicity, began to assail him. . . . And [Man] was driven forth (as your Scriptures record) unto the Earth: where being dumb and not able to speak, he began to learn of necessity the Language in the which he uttered and delivered to his posterity, the nearest knowledge he had of God his Creatures.“34                                                                  The Archangel also assured the pious magus of the goodwill of the spirit world in sharing their knowledge with him:                                        “With this that we deliver, which Adam verily spake in innocency, and never uttered nor disclosed to man since till now, wherein the power of God must work, and wisdom in her true kind be delivered: which are not to be spoken of in any other thing, neither to be talked of with mans imaginations; for as this Work and Gift is of God, which is all power, so doth he open it in a tongue of power.”  35                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     As one can see, from mathematical and magical abstractions Dee finally arrived at a simple and pragmatic program: to learn the angelic language from its users, the angels themselves. As Polonius characterized Hamlet’s way of thinking: “though this be madness, yet there is method in’t.”:36                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Some Trends Of New Age Mysticism Attached to Enoch Still Flourish  The rest of the story now diverges somewhat from occultism as well as from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The search for the perfect or universal language continued, but from the seventeenth century on it followed the principles of rationalism.37 The quest for Enoch’s apocalypse was transferred to the field of philology. Since the beginning of the 20th century there has been a new interest in enochian mysticism (see, for example, the “enochian magick” of Aleister Crowley38 or Béla Hamvas’ interest in Enoch mentioned at the beginning of this paper) and some trends of New Age mysticism attached to Enoch still flourish. All this warns us that research into Enoch and his pre-modern cultural representations is still pertinent.”                                                                                         

“Let no one disqualify you, insisting on asceticism and worship of angels, going on in detail about visions, puffed up without reason by his sensuous mind.” Col. 2:18 Speculations: – ‘#1687. embateuó – enter, set foot on, intrude, pry into, taking…stand, to invade, make a hostile incursion into, to go into details b. to investigate, search into, scrutinize minutely = going into curious and subtle speculation about things which he has seen in visions granted him;’ This describes many, who are speculating, concerning the unseen realm = intruding into, scrutinizing minutely, curious and subtle speculation about things which he has seen in visions granted him;” 

Daryl – From here I will connect the reading and embracing of the ‘Book of Enoch,’ with counterfeit encounters of familiar spirits, as Enoch.

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